HOW MANY TILES DO YOU NEED?
Measure the walls to be tiled and calculate the area in square metres (times the length of the wall or floor by height to work out the Square metre), work out the number of tiles per square metre and multiply this by the area to be covered see below.
The above table must only be used as a guide and is not a definitive statement of fact as the amounts have been rounded up or down for simplicity.
For example if you had a floor space of 6 metres x 5metres you will require 30 Sq metres of Tiles plus wastage, so if you wanted 600 x 600 tiles you would receive approx 90 tiles.
To allow for smaller areas like around windows, cutting waste, breakages and some spares just in case for the future, the general rule is an addition of 10% is normally adequate. When ordering it is also normal to usually round quantities up, for the main wall and floor tiles.
Tiles are produced in batches, and it is important to make sure you have enough tiles from the same batch for your project, so order slightly more than you need. Any extras can be stored for future repairs.
Adhesives & Grout
There are many different types of adhesive and Grouts available depending on your floor, please speak to your Tile Suppliers.
What tools do I need?
Having the correct tools will make the job easier, quicker and will ensure a better finish.
• Spirit level
• Tape Measure
• 5 x 2.5cm (2" x 1") battens for marking out tiles
• Tile cutter
• Pincers for nipping off the edges
• Tile adhesive trowel
• Spacer pegs
• Carpenter's square
• Clean rags
• Rubber Hammer
• Grouting squeegee/Float
A mechanical tile saw will be required for porcelain, natural stone products such as travertine, limestone, marble, granite, slate.
SHOWERS AND WETROOMS
In wet Areas particularly in bathrooms around the shower it is essential to tile onto an already water resistant background such as tile backer board, using the correct tile adhesive.
Porous backgrounds such as plaster or plasterboard can be made waterproof by using a tanking waterproofing system like wedi board.
Baths and shower trays should be fitted BEFORE tiling, this will give a neater finish tiling down to baths, shower trays and also give a better seal.
Special attention should be paid to sealing the gaps between the base of the tiling and where the tiling joins the base of shower units or bath and penetrations in the tiling such as shower fittings, using a good quality antifungal silicone sealant.
You require a flat surface for tiling, preparing the surface is vitally important.
A Tile backer board is an inert board suitable for fixing tiles in most domestic situations; make sure you follow the manufacturer’s installation instructions so they are adequately supported.
New plastered walls should be left for 4 weeks and be dry and brushed down before tiling. Old plaster is fine, as long as it is sound. Check with the tile adhesive manufacturer whether or not the plaster requires priming before tiling can begin. The weight of tiling should not exceed 20 kg/m2.
Plasterboard is suitable for walls provided it is well supported with the board being a minimum of 12.5 mm. Fix the tiles directly on the paper facing, do not skim with finish plaster. The weight of tiling should not exceed 32 kg/m2.
On painted surfaces. It is very important to make an examination of the surface, as the permanent success of the installation is dependent on good adhesion between the paint and the surface to which it has been applied and between any substrate and basic structure. Remove any old wall covering and flaking paint. Make sure you fill in old cracks and voids with a suitable filler. Make sure the surface to be tiled is smooth, clean and free from dust, dirt or grease.
Planning is essential for a good result.
Get your long length of timber, mark the tile widths to help you identify where the tile will start and finish, leave space for your joints, which should be at least 2mm wide.
Set out horizontal position of the tiles so that the same size cuts are made either side of windows etc. Avoid small difficult cuts as they can spoil the appearance.
Plan each wall carefully, remembering that any patterns/designs will need to be matched in the corners of the room. For plain tiles each wall should be centralised avoiding any small cuts.
Find the lowest point of the base you are working to skirting, bath top, work surface, with a spirit level.
Place a tile against the lowest point and draw a line on the wall along the top of the tile. The start point of the line will depend on the setting out of the tiles, as the tile against the floor may be a cut tile.
Nail the batten along the wall to this line. Use the spirit level to ensure it is level. The first line of tiles will rest on this batten.
Draw a vertical (plumb) line at one end of the wall, one tile width away from the edge. Use this to check that the tiles are in line vertically.
Spread the wall tile adhesive using a tile adhesive trowel onto the wall. Work in small areas a metre at a time, so that tiles are fixed before the surface of the adhesive forms a skin. Press and twist the wall tiles into the adhesive starting at the bottom and working upwards, one row of whole tiles at a time, using spacers if required to ensure a uniform joint. Check the horizontal and vertical lines with the spirit level every few rows.
Remove surplus adhesive from joints to allow room for grouting and complete the tiling.
In awkward locations it is often easier to apply the adhesive onto the back of the tile instead of the wall. For complicated shapes make a template and transfer the design to the tile.
To prevent the seepage of water around baths, basins and plumbing equipment such as shower taps a silicone sealant should be used.
Do not begin grouting for at least 12 hours after fixing unless using rapid setting and hardening adhesives. There are many types of grout, so ask your supplier for the correct grout for your application. Force the grout into the joints using a grouting float. Do not use rigid spreaders as these can cause scratching to certain tiles. Remove surplus grout from the surface with a sponge. Polish with a dry cloth.